paragraf tamamlama sorularını cözme teknikleri


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Paragraf Tamamlama

Paragraf tamamlama bir okuma becerisidir ve verilen paragrafın tümünün anlamının kavranmasını gerektirir.

  • Paragrafın tümünü dikkatli bir şekilde okuyun ve genel anlamı kavramaya çalışın.
  • Paragraf içinde, kimi zaman, aranılan tümceyi izleyen tümcede yardımcı olabilecek yapılar bulunmaktadır (Örnekteki In other words gibi). Bu ipuçlarından yararlanın.
  • Seçeneklerin paragrafın bütününe zaman, özne ve nesne olarak uyum gösterip göstermediğini inceleyin.
  • Çeşitli olaylar hakkındaki mevcut bilginizin seçeneklerin saptanmasında temel rol oynamasına izin vermeyin. Paragrafın içerdiği anlam sizin genel bilgi ya da görüşlerinizle çelişiyor olabilir.Önemli olan sizin ne düşündüğünüz değil paragrafın ne ilettiğidir.

 

1.

In the 1900s cancer was nearly always fatal; by the 1930s one out of five cancer patients was saved; by 1975 treatment was successful in one out of every three patients. ..... .

  1. New evidence suggests that the highest risk for lung cancer occurs in asbestos workers who smoke
  2. Indeed everyone knows that cancer refers to a group of over 100 different diseases
  3. Today scientists and physicians believe that half of all cancer patients can be saved if present knowledge is applied promptly in every case
  4. Rehabilitation of the cancer patient has become an important new concern for social workers
  5. The aim of cancer rehabilitation is to help the patient lead as normal a life as possible

2.

...... Composers such as Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, and Berlioz sought a new freedom in musical expression. Form became of less importance than content; and that content often had literary connections.

  1. Wordsworth is one of the best-known of all the English Romantic poets.
  2. Mendelssonn and Brahms are the two most typical representative composers of the Romantic era.
  3. The Romantic movement, which began around the year 1800 in literature, also had its counterpart in music.
  4. In fact, the Romantic movement itself did not last very long.
  5. Among the Romantic composers, Brahms has generally been the most popular.

3.

..... . The faltering economy they inherited was now under additional pressure from those newly unemployed, including the million-man army of the regime. There were critical shortages of foreign exchange and gold, much of which had been stolen in the final days of the war. There were also at least two million new refugees, nearly 10% of the population. Virtually, the country was in a state of total bankruptcy.

  1. The end of the war in Vietnam brought massive problems to the new leaders of the country
  2. In the first place, all industry was nationalized by the new Vietnamese government
  3. One unexpected problem facing the new government was continuing military activity
  4. One solution to the urban problems facing Vietnam was to get people to return to the countryside
  5. In their first months in power Vietnam's new leaders succeeded in persuading hundreds of thousands of people to move back to their farms

4.

Underdeveloped countries are those in which economic structure and development are held back. The causes of the condition of underdevelopment are complex, but two opposing sets of theories dominate discussion. ...... On the other hand, there are the theories that ascribe underdevelopment directly to the distortions of economic structure and the exploitation involved in the relations between the developed and the underdeveloped countries.

  1. In other words, development and underdevelopment are mutually interdependent.
  2. This view implies that the state and process of underdevelopment in certain countries is inevitable.
  3. On the one hand there are those theories that attribute underdevelopment to the internal characteristics of the underdeveloped countries themselves.
  4. Accordingly, such countries are responsible for their own underdevelopment.
  5. However, no country in the world is completely isolated from the current monetary policies.

5.

Just how the Alzheimer disease ravages the brain isn't understood, but a protein molecule is thought to be involved. ...... On the theory that the protein causes the disorder by travelling from other tissues to the brain, researchers may now seek to devise drugs that would block the protein and stop it getting there.

  1. If this is confirmed it may lead to a breakthrough in the treatment of the disease.
  2. In fact it hardly seems worthwhile to carry out further research into the Alzheimer disease.
  3. Much research has already been carried out to discover the causes of the disease.
  4. Once the molecule had been isolated it was possible to cure the condition.
  5. The Alzheimer disease is just one of the many incurable illnesses that inflict people in the developed countries.

6.

The purpose of a novel varies with its type. Anthony Trollope's statement has a fundamental validity: "the object of a novel should be to instruct in morals while it amuses." At one extreme, some novels are expressly meant to teach, such as some children's novels and social novels. ...... However, one can say that the aim of most novels is to reveal and stimulate thought about aspects of human behaviour both individually and in personal and social relations.

  1. Hence, fantasy has become increasingly popular, especially in the form of science fiction.
  2. Therefore, a novel is a fictitious prose narrative, usually of more than fifty thousand words in length.
  3. On the whole, Daniel Defoe is regarded the first notable English novelist.
  4. At the other, some novels are meant simply as entertainment, such as detective stories and much science fiction.
  5. At the same time, the reading public has increased in numbers, especially among the educated.

7.

We all know that learning is important. .....? A dictionary might tell you that learning is acquiring knowledge through experience and study. A teacher might tell you that it is memorizing what he wants you to know for the examination. Your boss might tell you that it is mastery of the task you are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that it is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience. Obviously, learning takes place in many ways and terms.

  1. How is it managed
  2. What exactly do you mean
  3. Yet can one depend on it
  4. But what exactly is it
  5. Do you think it can be mastered

8.

Someone once said that there are three sides to every questionable issue: your side, my side, and the "right" side. ..... . For instance, the reactions in the issue of abortion are usually divided into two basic viewpoints: for or against. But the issue is not that simple. Other questions begin to surface, which turn the issue into a complex one and make it necessary for us to look at it from many sides.

  1. Unknowingly people become conditioned to speak out of prejudice
  2. In fact, there may be many sides, depending upon the issue itself
  3. As we mature, our beliefs are also shaped both directly and indirectly by the media
  4. Consequently our thinking process becomes overruled by others' opinions
  5. Even when we think we are acting as individuals by rejecting the ideas of one group, we are often just accepting the ideas of another

9.

Some sociologists are concerned that America is no longer "a melting pot", but "a salad bowl". Unlike most earlier immigrants who were willing to learn English and wanted to "melt" into American life, many of today's immigrants do not see the need. .....? How will all this affect America's future?

  1. Why did most European immigrants settle in the cities rather than on farms
  2. What was city life like for most immigrants
  3. What changes can we expect in the make-up of America's population by the year 2000
  4. What hardship did the early immigrants face when they arrived in America
  5. How far back can an American trace his roots

10.

What is soul? From Plato onwards many answers have been given to this question, but not one has ever been found to be adequate. .... . Presumably we must mean something by it.

  1. His definition, quite understandably, soon returned to favour.
  2. Even so, the word is still in constant use.
  3. At a still later period soul and character were equated.
  4. If there had been further developments in this line they might have proved significant.
  5. The next step would then have been to differentiate between soul and body.

11.

The Japanese have a strong aesthetic sense: they beautify, adorn and decorate everything they touch. ...... It is cut into an artistic shape and given a colour scheme with carefully placed pieces of tomato and herbs.

  1. Presumably they get a great deal of satisfaction out of such elegant displays.
  2. The art of flower arrangement is particularly well-developed in Japan.
  3. Many of these arrangements consist of merely two or three flowers and a spree of green.
  4. Naturally this is especially true of women of that country.
  5. A sandwich is Japan is not a sandwich, it is a work of art designed to appeal not just to the palate but also to the eye.

12.

Gathering information on a possible adversary or adversaries is only the start of the intelligence process. The raw material, once in hand, must be drawn together, analyzed, correlated, and evaluated before it becomes useful knowledge. ..... . From this appraisal, which points to his most likely course of action, the target state can chart a course of action best designed to meet the developing situation.

  1. The ethics of secret intelligence operations have long been debated
  2. At this stage there emerges an estimate of the adversary's intentions and of his ability to achieve them
  3. But the richest source is usually the secret agent, who is always a highly skilled and well-trained professional
  4. Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually classified and limited in circulation
  5. In recent decades, technology has enormously lengthened the reach and sharpened the penetration of intelligence

YANITLAR

1.

In the 1900s cancer was nearly always fatal; by the 1930s one out of five cancer patients was saved;by 1975 treatment was successful in one out of every three patients. Today scientists and physicians believe that half of all cancer patients can be saved if present knowledge is applied promptly in every case.

 

Yıllar geçtikçe kanserin ölümcül etkisi azalmakta. Yanıt C.

2.

The Romantic movement, which began around the year 1800 in literature, also had its counterpart in music. Composers such as Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, and Berlioz sought a new freedom in musical expression. Form became of less importance than content; and that content often had literary connections.

 

Paragrafta müzik ele alınmakta. Bu açıdan A ve D seçenekleri elenebilir. B seçeneğinde iki müzisyenden söz edildikten sonra paragrafın geri kalanında bunlarla bir ilişki kurulmamakta. Aynısı E seçeneği için d geçerli. Yanıt C.  

3.

The end of the war in Vietnam brought massive problems to the new leaders of the country. The faltering economy they inherited was now under additional pressure from those newlyunemployed, including the million-man army of the regime. There were critical shortages of foreign exchange and gold, much of which had been stolen in the final days of the war. There were also at least two million new refugees, nearly 10% of the population. Virtually, the country was in a state of total bankruptcy.

 

Paragrafta çeşitli sorunlar dile getiriliyor: faltering economy, shortage of foreign exchange and gold, new refugees. Son tümce ise herşeyi özetlemekte. Bu durumda, sorunları dile getirecek bir açılış tümcesi gerekmekte. Yanıt A.

4.

Underdeveloped countries are those in which economic structure and development are held back. Thecauses of the condition of underdevelopment are complex, but two opposing sets of theories dominate discussion. On the one hand there are those theories that attribute underdevelopment to the internal characteristics of the underdeveloped countries themselves. On the other hand, there are the theories that ascribe underdevelopment directly to the distortions of economic structure and the exploitation involved in the relations between the developed and the underdeveloped countries.

 

Yanıtı bulmak çok kolay. Boşluktan hemen sonra On the other hand geliyor, C seçeneğinde de On the one hand var.

5.

Just how the Alzheimer disease ravages the brain isn't understood, but a protein molecule is thought tobe involved. If this is confirmed it may lead to a breakthrough in the treatment of the disease.On the theory that the protein causes the disorder by travelling from other tissues to the brain, researchers may now seek to devise drugs that would block the protein and stop it getting there.

 

Paragrafın tümünde hastalığa çare olabilecek bir bilgiden söz edilmekte. B seçeneği bu bilgi ile çelişmekte. C ve E seçenekleri çok genel. D seçeneği hem geçmiş zamandan söz etmekte, hem de hastalığa çare bulunmuş, herşey bitmiş mesajını vermekte. Yanıt B.  

6.

The purpose of a novel varies with its type. Anthony Trollope's statement has a fundamental validity:"the object of a novel should be to instruct in morals while it amuses." At one extreme, some novels are expressly meant to teach, such as some children's novels and social novels. At the other, some novels are meant simply as entertainment, such as detective stories and much sciencefiction. However, one can say that the aim of most novels is to reveal and stimulate thought about aspects of human behaviour both individually and in personal and social relations.

 

Çok kolay bir soru. Boşluktan önce gelen tümce At the one extreme ile başlamakta. D seçeneği de At the other ile.  

7.

We all know that learning is important. But what exactly is it? A dictionary might tell you that learning is acquiring knowledge through experience and study. A teacher might tell you that it is memorizing what he wants you to know for the examination. Your boss might tell you that it is mastery of the task you are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that it is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience. Obviously, learning takes place in many ways and terms.

 

Boşluktan sonra gelen tümceler

 

A dictionary might tell you that learning is ..

 

A teacher might tell you that it (=learning) is ..

 

Your boss might tell you that it (=learning( is ..

 

A psychologist might tell you that it (=learning) is ..

 

şeklinde verilmekte. Görüldüğü gibi, "öğrenme"nin ne olduğu sorgulanıyor. Yanıt D.  

8.

Someone once said that there are three sides to every questionable issue: your side, my side, and the "right" side. In fact, there may be many sides, depending upon the issue itself. For instance, the reactions in the issue of abortion are usually divided into two basic viewpoints: for or against. But the issue is not that simple. Other questions begin to surface, which turn the issue into a complex one and make it necessary for us to look at it from many sides.

 

A seçeneğinin paragraf ile hiçbir ilişkisi yok. C seçeneğinde sözü edilen media ile paragrafın bir ilişkisi yok. D seçeneğinde others' ile other people's anlatılmakta. Yine paragrafın bütünü ile bir ilgisi yok. E seçeneği ise tüm konuyu we çevresinde ele almakta. Yanıt B.  

9.

Some sociologists are concerned that America is no longer "a melting pot", but "a salad bowl". Unlikemost earlier immigrants who were willing to learn English and wanted to "melt" into American life, many of today's immigrants do not see the need. What changes can we expect in the make-up of America's population by the year 2000? How will all this affect America's future?

 

Paragrafta Amerika'ya göçmen olarak gelenlerin artık eskiden olduğu gibi birer Amerikalı olmayı istemediklerini anlatmakta. Son tümce gelecekte neler olabileceğini sorguluyor. Aynı şekilde C seçeneği de gelecekte neler olabileceğini sorgulamakta.

10.

What is soul? From Plato onwards many answers have been given to this question, but not one has ever been found to be adequate. Even so, the word is still in constant use. Presumably we must mean something by it.

 

Boşluktan önce gelen tümcedeki one sözcüğü answer sözcüğü yerine geçmekte. Bu durumda, "Many questions have been given to the question of What is soul?, but not one answer has ever been found to be adequate" şeklinde bir tümce oluşturulabilir. A ve C seçenekleri bu açıdan ilişkili değil. D ve E seçenekleri aslında birbirini izleyen tümceler içermekte. Bu tümcelerden biri doğru seçenek olsa paragrafın son tümcesi anlamsız biçimde ortada kalırdı. Yanıt B.  

11.

 

 

Bu soruya genelde verilen yanıt B oldu. Sizin yanıtınız da B ise, mevcut bilgilerinizin sizi yanıltmasına izin verdiniz ve paragrafın tümünü dikkatli bir biçimde okumadınız demektir. Çünkü, eğer doğru yanıt "The art of flower arrangement" ise, tomato adında yeni bir çiçek türü keşfettiniz! Paragrafta düzenlemesi yapılan şey bir sandviç ve yanıt da E.  

12.

Gathering information on a possible adversary or adversaries is only the start of the intelligence process. The raw material, once in hand, must be drawn together, analyzed, correlated, and evaluated before it becomes useful knowledge. At this stage there emerges an estimate of the adversary's intentions and of his ability to achieve them. From this appraisal, which points to his most likely course of action, the target state can chart a course of action best designed to meet the developing situation.

 

Zor bir soru. Zorluğu yalnızca bir çok zor gelebilecek sözcük ile dolu olmasından değil, bir de birden fazla anlam taşıyan intelligence sözcüğünü barındırmasından kaynaklanmakta. Paragrafı ve özellikle seçenekleri dikkatlice okursanız, intelligence sözcüğünün zeka değil haber alma, istihbarat anlamında kullanıldığını görürsünüz. Paragrafın tümü istihbaratın elde edilmesi, işlenmesi ve yorumlanması ile ilgili. Yanıt B.


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